Right-to-left shunt secondary to duplicated superior vena cava as etiology of ischemic stroke

Ana Margarida Damas, Gustavo Nobre de Jesus, Paula Campos, Isabel Moniz, João Ribeiro


Duplication of superior vena cava (SVC) has an estimated prevalence of 0.3%. Incomplete regression of anterior cardinal vein can lead to persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) and is associated with chronic hypoxemia and predisposition to systemic embolization from right-to-left shunt. Blood drainage to the left atrium is extremely rare.